WATER,SANITATION
AND HYGIENE(WASH)

Essential Innovative Synergy Africa (EISA)
P.O Box  55226, 00200 Nairobi-Kenya
Mobile: +254 737 322 755 Email:info@eisa.co.ke
Website:www.eisa.co.ke

Contents
WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE (WASH) 3
MAIN OBJECTIVE OF WASH PROGRAMMES 3
WHAT IT INVOLVES 3
IMPORTANT FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED 3
THE HEALTH RISKS 4
CONSEQUENCES OF INADEQUATE PROVISION OF WASH 4
SOURCES OF HAZARDS THAT MAY CONTAMINATE WATER SOURCES 5
RISK MANAGEMENT 5
APPROACH IN OFFERING WASH SERVICES 6
REFERENCE 7

P.O Box 55226, 00200 Nairobi-KenyaMobile: +254 737 322 755Email:info@eisa.co.ke Website:www.eisa.co.ke

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WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE (WASH)
Refers to provision of safe and clean water for subsistence among other domestic purposes. It involves removal of harmful substances like waste from water and promotion of healthy and safe behavioral practices amongst the affected populations.
WASH is important because without it, then the achievement of millennium development goals related to health and environmental sustainability will be in jeopardy.
Hazards whether manmade of natural may compromise waste management infrastructure leading to contamination of water sources. This in turn may pose health risks to populations using this water sources or even degrade the environment around them.
MAIN OBJECTIVE OF WASH PROGRAMMES IS
To reduce feaco-oral transmission of diseases and exposure to disease bearing vectors.
WHAT IT INVOLVES
Provision of safe drinking water;

Reduce environmental health risks;

Promotion of good hygiene practices;
All of the above three points are intended to “Allow people to live with good health, dignity comfort and security.”
IMPORTANT FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) saves lives in both routine and emergency situations.
Various diseases are spread through water, waste and inadequate hygiene including via vectors.
Medical waste is hazardous and it ought to be treated with the seriousness it deserves.

Providing WASH services helps people return to their normal lives after a disaster.
While both water quantity and quality are important for health, it is water quantity which should be given priority.
Multi-sectoral action reduces vulnerability, maintains water sources and waste systems, and ensure WASH is a priority action in the response to emergencies.

P.O Box 55226, 00200 Nairobi-KenyaMobile: +254 737 322 755Email:info@eisa.co.ke Website:www.eisa.co.ke

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THE HEALTH RISKS
Contamination of water sources may lead to infections that are transmitted through:
Use of the water for subsistence by cooking with it, washing or directly drinking it without disinfecting it.
Vectors such as mosquitoes and flies which use water bodies as breeding grounds hence contaminating it or once they are mature, they spread the infections themselves.
Hand to mouth transmission. This happens when there is inadequate water to foster the hygiene of an individual.
CONSEQUENCES OF INADEQUATE PROVISION OF WASH
Increased risk of several diseases which are:

Diarrhoea,
Typhoid,
Hepatitis A,
Dysentry,
Malaria,
Trachoma,
Intestinal Helminths,
Cholera among others
Lack of adequate supplies of clean and safe water restricts the proper functioning and safe practices of health workers and health facilities.
Medical waste is highly infectious. Pathogenic risks as a result of exposure to this kind of waste are but not limited to HIV AIDS, Hepatitis B & C, Haemorrhagic fever, skin infections, Respiratory infections among others.

P.O Box 55226, 00200 Nairobi-KenyaMobile: +254 737 322 755Email:info@eisa.co.ke Website:www.eisa.co.ke

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SOURCES OF HAZARDS THAT MAY CONTAMINATE WATER SOURCES
Inadequate management of human waste poses a serious health risk due to potential contamination and loss of water sources. Particular attention ought to be paid to children’s excreta since it is more infectious than that of adults yet most communities think its vice versa.
Natural disasters such as Earthquakes and Floods lead to contamination, with far-reaching consequences to health.
RISK MANAGEMENT
The following are ways in which communities and governments can effectively manage risks in WASH:
Preventing defecation especially by children in areas where water sources are in order to avoid contamination.
Preventing the spread of infection through training of the community on the need to foster hygiene and through provision of soap and detergents.
Disinfection of/and treatment of water as per the WHO and/or SPHERE recommendations.
Ensuring that health facilities and health care providers have adequate water supplies to support delivery life saving health care services especially during emergency situations.
Using SPHERE (2011) as a reference on the minimum standards during disaster response for individuals, camps and health facilities.
Ensuring shelters and temporary camps have access to safe water and sanitation.
Consulting and engaging directly with the community in planning WASH services in order to identify socio-cultural acceptable interventions that will be sustainable, longlasting and effective.
Designing, building, modification and maintaining water and sanitation systems with the aim of withstanding the risk of disasters.
Ensure provision of adequate water quantity that is safe for consumption and

accessible sanitation services during disaster helps to manage cases of contamination.
Ensuring a multi-sectoral approach in all aspects of disaster risk management for WASH including disaster response planning.
Carrying out vulnerability assessments of community supplies of water and sanitation systems to assess their ability to provide essential services in the event of a disaster.

P.O Box 55226, 00200 Nairobi-KenyaMobile: +254 737 322 755Email:info@eisa.co.ke Website:www.eisa.co.ke

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APPROACH IN OFFERING WASH SERVICES
EISA is a firm equipped with experts with skills in the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene(WASH). The following is a step-by-step approach in delivering this service:
Step one: Reconnaissance study

Step two: Site assessment and Community needs assessments

Step three: Data Analysis and input from stakeholders and interested parties

Step four: Recommendations and data presentation

Step five: Detailed report

1.Reconnaissance study

2.Site assessment and 5. Report Community needs

assessments

4.Recommendations3.Data Analysis andinput fromand data presentationstakeholders andinterested parties
Figure 1: Service delivery flow diagram.

P.O Box 55226, 00200 Nairobi-KenyaMobile: +254 737 322 755Email:info@eisa.co.ke Website:www.eisa.co.ke

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REFERENCE
WHO (2010) ten facts on sanitation. http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/sanitation/en/index.html
WHO & UNECEF (2010) Guidance on water and sanitation in extreme events http://www.unece.org/env/water/whmop2/WHO_Guidance_EWE_Final_draft_web_op t.pdf
WHO (2005) Essential hygiene messages in post-disaster emergencieshttp://www.emro.who.int/Sudan/pdf/hygiene_emergencies.pdf
WHO (2011) Four steps for the sound management of health-care waste in emergencies http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section1257/Section2263/Section2310/Section2320_125 00.htm

P.O Box 55226, 00200 Nairobi-KenyaMobile: +254 737 322 755Email:info@eisa.co.ke Website:www.eisa.co.ke

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